Categories
Industrial Design

Describe the PURPOSE of each chart listed and find an example where it is used to good effect on a web page and provide the URL link to that page.

Statistical analysis and the development of charts and graphs are closely linked in history and practice. In this exercise, you will develop an understanding of their application and utility.
We’ll start with Florence Nightingale, a pioneer in this field who developed one of the first mathematical models ever used as a graphic presentation. At that time, this was not an academic exercise for her but an attempt to win influence over funding in an effort to stem the spread of disease for a standing army in the field. The standard of her day for presenting findings was the written report. Even ledgers, the early form of spreadsheets were not unknown and given that she was fighting over funding, she could have opted to present her case for budget authority this way as well. By all accounts, her presentation was very effective and changed the way the military, hospitals and many other organizations developed metrics and other standards of measure when presenting complex data analysis. Often referenced as Nightingale’s Rose, open up a web page at http://www.economist.com/node/10278643 to review the presentation (the chart is displayed thumbnail size on the right side of the article, right click on it and a drop-down menu appears and then click “view image”.) You’ll also need to review Minard’s analysis of Napolean’s Russian campaign of 1812 and Playfair’s analysis of the cost of wheat versus wage rates to compare the effectiveness of their methodologies.
Task 1: Evaluate the three charts displayed on the web page. The first is Nightingale’s original, the second is Minard’s chart and the third is Playfair’s chart. Each contains complex information displayed differently. Analyze the displays and compare and contrast them as effective displays for conveying the information they contain and on a scale of one to ten tell me how would you rate each and why. Further, today we have many types of graphics available to us in many of the programs we use routinely, like Excel and Word. If you had to develop a chart of your own to convey the same information contained in these charts, what type of chart would you develop for each and why (i.e. pie chart, histogram, radar chart, etc.)?
Please use the following resources instead of the link provided above:
Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale: The Lady with the Data


The Minard’s Chart
https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/the-scottish-scoundrel-who-changed-how-we-see-data
Playfair’s Analysis
https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Design-and-Analysis-of-Playfair-Ciphers-with-Matrix-Khan/823a26dd79bcd1e6b278b2f0daa7e7c4c2801ac4#extracted
Task 2: Describe the PURPOSE of each chart listed and find an example where it is used to good effect on a web page and provide the URL link to that page.
Scatter plot
Histogram
Line Diagram
Pie Chart
Radar Plot
Pareto Diagram
Milestone Chart
Time Series Analysis.

Categories
Industrial Design

How many paintings will you have to sell each month before you start to make a profit?

Skill Building exercise 6A is an exercise (page 220) on the Pert Chart. This is one of the more common and useful tools used in business. Without prior exposure, the first time most people see it they will need some clarification to understand all that it represents. While business and managers use many tools, one of the most common and useful is the Pert Chart. Build the Pert Chart described in your textbook and attach it to this assignment along with the answers to the two questions in the Break Even analysis based on the problem as outlined below.
Break Even Analysis:
On a recent vacation trip to Juarez, Mexico, you noticed a small store and street vendors selling original art. The prices ranged from $3 to $25 U.S. A flash of inspiration hit you, why not sell Mexican art back home in the U.S. using a van as your store? Every three months you could drive the 350 miles to Mexico and load up on art. You anticipate that you could negotiate generous large-quantity discounts from the Mexican vendors.
Back in the U.S., you could park your van on busy streets or nearby parks, wherever you could obtain a permit. You think the only advertising needed would be to display the art outside the van. Your intention is to operate your traveling art sale about 12 hours per week. If you can make enough money from your business, you could attend classes full time during the day.
You intend to sell the original painting at an average of $15 a unit. Based on preliminary analysis, you have discovered that your primary fixed costs per month would be: $500 for payment on a van, $125 for gas and maintenance, $50 for insurance, and $45 for a street vendor’s permit. You will also be driving to Mexico every three months at $400 per trip, resulting in a $133.33 per month travel cost. Your variable costs would be an average of $5 per painting and 45 cents for wrapping each painting in brown paper.
Question 1: How many paintings will you have to sell each month before you start to make a profit?
Question 2: If the average cost of your paintings rises to $8, how many pieces of art will you have to sell each month if you hold your price to $15 per unit?
• Make sure that you provide your calculations along with your answer (with proper units). If you work out the answer without the text’s formula, go back and work through the problem again using it. You need to show your work so that the instructor can clearly see you can run the problem.

Categories
Industrial Design

How can you be sure to find the coin that is different among the eight when you can only use the scale to twice?

Assignment 5 focuses on decision making, creative thinking and heuristics. Few people realize how the way they think is often bounded by ideas that force them to limit their options and think, well, for lack of a better metaphor. inside the box. Creative thinking isn’t something that you must be born with. While talent helps, like all management skills, you can take what you have and make it even better with experience and practice. This assignment provides students with a series of problems that are easily solvable except for the fact that the way people think often means they don’t see or never even consider solutions that are readily available. The answers to these problems are in the attachment above. Take the time to try an solve these problems before looking at the solutions or at least make a serious attempt. Doing so will make a much greater impression on thinking and enhance your problem solving skills and allow you to not only retain what you learn to a greater degree but enhance your ability to apply similar logic skills in the future. Students should attempt to solve the problems using their own reasoning skills before looking at the solutions.
The answers to the problems do not need to be included in your assignment submission. The expectation is that you will attempt to answer the questions on your own. I need to see your reasoned conclusions as to why people struggle to find answers to problems when the answer is not obvious or requires ‘outside the box’ thinking.
(While not required, having the following items on hand may help students think through some of the following problems: 12 toothpicks or pencils, 10 small circular objects like small coins or buttons, a pencil to write with, and for the last problem, two lollipops and a friend.)
PROBLEMS:
Problem 1. A farmer approaches a river crossing while taking a ravenous dog, hungry goose and a bag of corn with him. At the river, there is a very small skiff that will allow him to row himself and take one of the animals or the bag of corn across, one at a time. How can he do that when the dog will eat the goose if left alone, just as the goose would eat the corn? He must get himself and all three of his items (the dog, goose, and corn) across the river. (Please note there is no tricking involved in any of these problems. It can be done.)
Problem 2. The following two scenarios are based on a real events. A woman is driving across the desert, without a cell phone and has a flat tire in the pouring rain. She manages to jack up the car and takes off the five lug nuts holding the wheel with the flat tire. Just then, a flash flood washes the lug nuts away beyond recovery deep in the sand. How can she get the car back on the road?
Problem 3. Some friends are swimming together in a pond. The area is residential and the pond is ringed with lawns and gardens being watered. The pond is deep though and has a tangle of water plants growing at the bottom. One of the friends becomes entangled in the pond plants, underwater, just a foot from the surface of the pool. He is struggling desperately, but his friends realize they won’t be able to free him in time. What else can the friends do?
Problem 4. Arrange your 12 toothpicks or pencils into four squares. Once you’re finished it should look something like a window or a tall plus sign, with a border on all sides. Now remove two toothpicks/pencils from the figure you’ve made to form two perfect squares. Do not touch any of the other toothpicks or pencils and the form left must be two squares, not rectangles and there should not be any leftovers or extraneous toothpicks or pencils. Can you do it?
Problem 5. Draw nine dots on a sheet of paper in three rows of three as shown below
* * *
* * *
* * *
Now connect all nine dots with four straight lines without lifting your pencil off the paper.
Problem 6. Take out your ten circular objects and form them into five straight rows of four objects each. This may seem hard but it can be done so don’t give up too quickly.
Problem 7. You have eight circular coins that all appear to be the same but one of them is not. All weigh exactly the same save one. Fortunately you have a balance scale that can tell you if one side weighs more than the other but you can only use it twice. How can you be sure to find the coin that is different among the eight when you can only use the scale to twice?
Problem 8. In front of you is a nice cylindrically shaped cake that looks, tastes and smells delicious. You, and seven of your friends have been invited to eat it but before you do, you face a challenge. You can only cut the cake three times and when you are done, you must have divided the cake into eight equal parts. Can you do it or does the cake go uneaten?
Problem 9. Take six of your toothpicks or pencils and lay three of them down to form a triangle. Using the remaining three toothpicks or pencils to form three more triangles of the exact same shape and size so the you have four triangles in front of you.using only the six toothpicks or pencils.
Problem 10. Finally, the last problem is a contest between you and your friend. Take out the two lollipops and give one to your friend. With the lollipops still wrapped both you and your friend will place your lollipops on a table in front of you. Now, without using your hands or elbows or placing your mouth closer than six inches from the lollipop get the candy into your mouth.
Once students have worked their way down through the list of problems, their task is to identify why finding solutions to problems or situations like these may seem challenging for many. Your answer should be reasoned and thoughtful. Expressing your opinion is allowed provided you also have research to validate that opinion.
As a manager, your ability to look for solutions others overlook or reject out of hand can be one of the greatest assets you bring to an organization.
Bonus Problem: It is a dark and stormy night, and you”re driving in your sports car — a good looking little car–but with only two seats. Suddenly by the side of the road, you see three people stranded at a bus stop. One is a stranger who is having a heart attack at that very moment. Another is a childhood friend who has often saved your life. He has been begging to ride in your sports car. The third person is the man or woman of your dreams. It’s love at first sight. You recognize that you’ve suddenly found your soul mate, who you may never see again. You have just one empty seat in your car. Who do you pick up? Well you certainly owe a debt of gratitude to your friend but you should also pick up the stranger and save his life. And what of romance? As I say, you may never see the person of your dreams again. What do you do?