New England University
Doctor of philosophy in Christian Counseling
D r Fitzroy Gordon
Please review and arrange the questions with answers in APA format
1. Generally how are phobias developed? They are developed through trauma experience in childhood, adolescent age and even adult trauma experience
2. What is PTSD? Post Traumatic Stress Disorder caused by by stressful life event stressful life experience such as witnessing or experiencing any sort of violence emotional, sexual physical in childhood, adolescent age and even adult trauma experience, followed by intense emotional reactions as well as physical. People will have flashbacks and nightmares and vivid dreams.
3. How does conditioning affect behavior? It is used to affect behavior, to encourage or reinforce positive behavior and weaken negative one
4. What are the differences in reinforcement and punishment? Reinforcement elicits positive behavior by adding a stimulus to elicit desired behavior whereas punishment does the opposite by reducing unwanted behavior by removing the stimulus.
5. Give examples of positive and negative punishment.Positive punishment is scolding a student adding the stimulus to remove a behavior ,in class for using a phone . Negative punishment is taking away the stimulus in this case the toy to reinforce more positive behavior.
6. positive and negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement means adding something to encourage a ore positive behavior Eg child cleans up and gets a new toy while negative reinforcement is removing something to increase behavior for example using noisy beeping sound when seatbelt is not applied.
7. What is the idea of latent learning? Hidden learning, behavior might not be apparent until needed to show
8. How do you learn by insight? Seeing into a situation
9. How is conditioning used in the classroom? In advertising? In advertising using attractive models to sell beers. In classroom associating music with social studies
12What does the term “social dilemma” mean? Individual benefit but leading to depletion
What does the term “common dilemma” mean? Individual selfish interest that lead to negative effect on the whole group.Eg the use of natural resources.
What are the differences in reinforcement and punishment?